What Does a Government Do?
Governments around the world take on vast and varied responsibilities, from protecting citizens to regulating their economic activities. A government may govern a city, state or a nation and is responsible for creating laws, enforcing those laws, and providing public goods and services like schools, roads and police forces. Governments also play a role in defending the national borders and managing international relations.
There are many different ways in which governments can be organized, and it is often difficult to distinguish one from another without comparing them to their past history or current structures. A common way to categorize forms of government is by determining who rules them: whether one person (an autocracy), a group of people (aristocracy), or the people as a whole (democracy). These differences can have an impact on how a government operates and how its citizens view it.
The most fundamental duty of a government is to provide its citizens with safety and security, through a strong police force and a justice system that upholds the rights of all individuals. It is also responsible for establishing and maintaining a stable economy by managing public goods and services, including education, healthcare, transportation, sanitation and infrastructure. Governments may also be in charge of ensuring the country is financially secure by managing foreign investments and balancing deficits.
Governments are also in charge of keeping the environment safe, through projects such as cleaning up national and international waters, reducing air pollution and preserving wildlife sanctuaries and natural resources. In addition, the vast majority of countries around the world provide their citizens with social programs like welfare and medical insurance. These programs can be controversial, as some Americans believe they encourage people to rely on the government for their financial well being rather than taking responsibility for themselves and working to support their families.
While a government’s primary function is to create the rules that protect its citizens, it must also provide a structure for its citizens to engage with their elected officials and voice their opinions on issues that affect them directly. This is especially true in western democracies, where the right to free speech and a free press are considered basic freedoms.
A government’s effectiveness depends on how closely it aligns its actions with the views of its citizens. Despite widespread dissatisfaction with the federal government, a majority of Americans say that the government should play a major role in most areas, including ensuring access to health care and helping people get out of poverty. The public also sees the government as doing a good job of setting fair and safe workplace standards, although it falls short in some areas, like ensuring access to quality education. A key part of the success of a government is its separation of powers and checks and balances, which allow its members to make law and debate controversial issues without being rushed into action by an executive branch that may have limited authority to act on a proposal.